Author Archives: Gail Grunst Genealogy

About Gail Grunst Genealogy

Gail has been researching her own family since 1979. Her research has taken her back to 1800 Belgium and 1800 England. Gail has worked in a library for the last 20 years and has answered genealogy questions for patrons and helped patrons with their research. In addition to her degree in Library Media Technology, Gail has a two degree in Basic American Genealogy Research from the National Genealogy Society. She has done volunteer work for various Genealogy Societies. Gail teaches several Classes in Genealogy for the Round Lake Area Library, and would be happy to conduct a class for your organization. If interested in a class or if you would like a one-on-one consultation, please contact Gail. Please enjoy Gail's family History Blog

Is there a Doctor in the Family?


ytomgxzjcA while back, I wrote about my Great-Great Aunt Emma Reinhardt.  When doing research on her, I decided to search for her first husband.  There was so much information on him that I decided to write a separate post about him.  If you like you can go back and read my previous post about Aunt Emma’s two lives.  She married Dr. Frederick L. Orsinger on 2 September 1910.[1]  He was 33 years older than Emma.[2]  He had five children with his first wife, Lena, some older than Emma.[3]  His first wife Lena died in 1903.[4]  I can remember my grandmother would say with disgust in her voice, “Aunt Emma married that old Doc Orsinger.”  As a child I never questioned it.  I knew by my grandmother’s tone of voice she did not like him, but never asked any questions.  It really didn’t matter because this was long before I was born.  The Aunt Emma I knew was a kindly old woman who was now married to a very nice man.  When I went to enter her information into my family tree software, I wanted to be as accurate as possible, so I started looking for “Old Doc Orsinger”.  Well, between and Google, I came up with a lot of information.  Of course, I always would like more.  “Old Doc Orsinger” seems to be a colorful character to say the least.

“Frederick L. Orsinger was born in Baden, Germany on 8 March 1852.  At four years old he started attending school in his native town until age 14 under the priests of the parochial school.  At age 15 he went to Austria where he studied for a year.  He later spent a year and half in school in Switzerland studying medicine in Zurich.  In 1870 he completed a course in medicine and surgery in Zurich, Switzerland, and from there went to Paris, where he studied for six months. In 1871 he came to the United States and landed in Chicago on 9 October 1871 the same day as the Chicago Fire.  He decided not to stay in Chicago because of the destruction caused by the fire.   He headed for LaSalle, Illinois where he worked in his Uncle’s bakery.  While in LaSalle he purchased a drug store and engaged in the practice of medicine.  He realized that college training in America would prove valuable to him, and studied five years at the college of physicians and surgeons in Chicago, from which he graduated.  He gained experience during a year at Cook County Hospital”.[5]  Sounds like quite a resume doesn’t it?  But then I started to find articles in periodicals about Dr. Orsinger starting about 1903.

Here are some of the articles I found:

  • The Medical News: A Weekly Journal of Medical Science Vol 83, No 1, (New York) Saturday, July 4. 1903, Pg. 274. “Injunction secured by Dr. Orsinger – Dr. Fredrick L. Orsinger has secured an injunction restraining the State Board of Health, Justice Chott and his constable from causing imprisonment or enforcing judgement of $100 and costs secured against him for violation of medical Laws.”[6]
  • Journal of the American Medical Association – Medical News Vol 44, April 1, 1905. Pg. 104 “Fined for Illegal practice – Dr. Fredrick L. Orsinger on March 24 was fined $200 for practicing without a license. The prosecution was undertaken by Chicago Board of Health.”[7]
  • The Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 44 Jan – June 1905 Pg. 1124 (Chicago: American Medical Association Press, 1905) “Sues state board – Dr. Frederick L. Orsinger, formerly of LaSalle, who claims to be a graduate of Zurich, Switzerland, 1870 and has a diploma from the eclectic institution of April 1904, has asked the state board of Health be compelled by writ of mandamus to issue him a certificate to practice medicine in the state. On March 24 the appellant was fined $200 for violation of the medical practice act.”[8]
  • Bulletin Vol 6 Numbers 1-5 January-May 1910. Dr. F. L. Orsinger Makes New Move in Fight for License. Physician Refused Permit to Practice after Failing in Examinations. Dr. Frederick Leo Orsinger’s long continued fight to be permitted to continue the practice of medicine in Illinois without a state license took a new turn yesterday, when he obtained from Judge Walker in the circuit court a temporary order prohibiting the State Board of Health from prosecuting him.  The question of dissolving the order or making it permanent will be argued today. The Order was issued upon the recommendation of Master in Chancer, Albert W. Brickwood, who according to Attorney Charles G. Hoffman, representing the State Board of Health is the attorney of record for the plaintiff in two actions recently instituted by the National Medical University against the Board.  Sues to Compel Recognition. One of these is a suit for $500,000 damages because of the Board’s refusal to recognize the University.  The other is for a writ of mandamus to compel such recognition.  According to Dr. Orsinger’s bill of complaint, he has been practicing medicine in Illinois since 1872 and is a graduate of the medical schools of Zurich, Switzerland, and of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Chicago.  In July 1908 he secured a writ of mandamus directing the State Board to issue him a certificate entitling him to practice.  Board refuses to obey. The board refused to obey the writ, and during last February the mandamus order was vacated and the court held against Dr. Orsinger.  His appeal now is before the Appellate court. “Dr. Orsinger has twice taken the state examination,” said attorney Hoffman, “and has twice failed (Chicago Tribune April 17).  Dissolves Restraining Order.  Court Ends Temporary Injunction Granted Dr. F. L. Orsinger against State Health Board. In the circuit court yesterday Judge Walker dissolved the temporary restraining order which he issued last Friday against the State Board of Health upon the petition of Dr. Frederick Leo Orsinger.  It was held by the court that Dr. Orsinger’s fear of being prosecuted by the Board for practicing medicine without a license was not sufficient reason for issuing an injunction.  Dr. Orsinger was allowed five days in which to amend his petition (Chicago Tribune April 18).[9]
  • Illinois Medical Journal: the official organ of the Illinois State Medical Society Vol 18, July to Dec 1910. Pg. 262, George N. Krieder, M.D., editor “Dr. Fred L. Orsinger, 750 W. Congress, who is said to have fought the State Board of Health for thirty two years against taking out a license to practice medicine, was indicted by the June grand jury of Cook County on the charge of having performed an operation on Pauline Sproc, which resulted in her death.”[10]
  • June 16, 1910, Mrs. Paulina Sproc, a 35-year-old immigrant from Bohemia, died in a Chicago home from an abortion that had been performed on June 5. W.L. Orainger (F. L. Orsinger) was held by the coroner’s jury. The source document doesn’t indicate that the case ever went to trial.  George N. Krieder, M.D., editor [11]
  • March 13, 1917 – From the Chicago Police Department Homicide Records 1870 – 1930. Schofield, Mannie L. Age 33 – died from an abortion at 325 Robey St., operation performed by Fred L. Orsinger, who with F. Schofield (her husband) were held by the coroner 3/15/17.  5/8/20 Orsinger acquitted.[12]
  • X-BUTCHER, NOW DOCTOR, IS HELD FOR WOMANS DEATH. Dr. Fred L. Orsinger, who the Chicago police say, is a former butcher and an ex-convict, was held last night after the death of Mrs. Minnie L. Schofield, 325 South Robey Street Physicians at the county hospital say she died from a criminal operation and Identified Dr. Orsinger shortly before she died. Thomas F. Schotield, husband of the victim, also was held. He admitted introducing Orsinger to his wife, but denied knowing of the alleged operation. Chicago Livestock World[13]

These articles raised more questions about the doctor.  Was his complaint against the Board of Health legitimate or did the Board of Health have a legitimate complaint against the doctor?  Was he a fraud?  Did he really go to medical school in Switzerland and the College of Physicians and Surgeons (now the University of Illinois College of Medicine)? Why could he not pass the State Board Exam with his education and experience practicing Medicine?  To be fair, when Dr. Orsinger started practicing medicine no license was required.  Over the years the states started requiring licenses and raised the standards to practice medicine.  This was probably a big change for some doctors and they might not have liked being regulated.  Change is always hard and some people take it harder than others.  This also was taking away his livelihood.   “Illinois started requiring doctors to be licensed in 1877, and Medical licensing boards’ enforcement powers forced fundamental changes in medical school curriculum’s, purged unlicensed ignorant practitioners and outright frauds, reduced the number of non-medical school graduates, marginalized midwives, revoked the licenses of abortionists, and unified the best of both regular and irregular medical practitioners.”[14]   One article said he fought the Board of Health for the past 32 years, which means he started fighting the board around 1877 at the time Illinois started requiring licenses.

Two women died after he performed an abortion which was not legal at that time.  The one article calls him an ex-convict. Does that mean that he was convicted of the first woman’s death in 1910?  I have been unable to find out if he was an ex-butcher.  The 1880 Census has his occupation as a saloon keeper.[15]  The 1894 city directory lists his occupation as real estate and saloon keeper.[16]  In the 1898 and 1904 city directory he is listed as a physician.[17]  According to the 1920 Census Emma and Fred are not living together, however Emma still uses the surname Orsinger.[18]  I assume they were still married, but separated.  He died in 1923.[19]

Copyright © 2016 Gail Grunst


[1] Chicago:  Its history and Its Builders

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Injunction secured by Dr. Orsinger.” The Medical News: A Weekly Journal of Medical Science Vol 83, No 1, Saturday, July 4. 1903, (New York) Pg. 274.

[7] “Fined for Illegal practice.” Journal of the American Medical Association – Medical News Vol 44, April 1, 1905. Pg. 104

[8] Simmons, M.D., George H., editor, “Sues State Board.” Jama:  The Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 44, Jan – June 1905, (Chicago: American Medical Association Press, 1905) Pg. 1124.

[9] “Dr. F. L. Orsinger Makes New Move in Fight for License. Physician Refused Permit to Practice after Failing in Examinations.” Bulletin. Vol 6 Numbers 1-5 January-May 1910.

[10] Krieder, M.D., George N., editor.  “Dr. Fred L. Orsinger.” Illinois Medical Journal: the official organ of the Illinois State Medical Society Vol 18, July to Dec 1910. Pg. 262.

[11] Website: Cemeteryofchoice

[12] Chicago Police Department Homicide Records 1870 – 1930. Illinois Regional Archives Depository, Ronald Williams Library, Northwestern University, 5500 N. St. Louis Avenue, Chicago, Il 60625-4699

[13] Chicago Livestock World, 14 March 1917.

[14] Sandvick C. Enforcing Medical Licensing in Illinois: 1877-1890. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 2009;82(2):67-74.

[15] 1880; Census Place: La Salle, La Salle, Illinois; Roll: 223; Family History Film: 1254223; Page: 294D; Enumeration District: 069; Image: 0110

[16] U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.

[17] Ibid.

[18]1920; Census Place: Chicago Ward 13, Cook (Chicago), Illinois; Roll: T625_322; Page: 8B; Enumeration District: 758; Image: 281

[19] Illinois, Deaths and Stillbirths Index, 1916-1947 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.

September Book Review: Golden Age



Read September’s book review of the Golden Age by Jane Smiley on the book review page.  The Golden Age was the last book in a trilogy.  All three books Some Luck, Early Warning and Golden Age are a must read.

German Letter Transcribed Reveals Family Secret


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If you read my last post on Letters from Germany, you will know that I have some letters written in German addressed to my great-grandfather, Rudolph Kaiser.  From the little we could deduce from them, it appeared he had another family in Germany.

Since writing my last post on Rudolf Kaiser, I have done some searching on his Children in Germany.

I researched on and came up with the following:

  • Rudolf Otto Pielenz (Rudolf Kaiser’s son) born 18 February 1890; Mother: Anna Auguste Emilie Pielenz*
  • Ida Bertha Pielenz (Rudolf Kaiser’s daughter) born 19 December 1891; Mother: Anna Auguste Emilie Pielenz*
  • Rudolf Otto Pielenz Married 7 April 1917 to Pauline Wilhelmine Helene Schauer; son of Anna Pielinz and Werner*
  • Anna Pielenz married Friedrich Carl Wagner 24 February 1894.* Anna Pielenz and Friedrich Carl Wagner’s children are as follows:
    • Anna Louise Auguste Wagner born 16 September 1894.*
    • Emma Bertha Wagner born 15 November 1895.*
    • Otto Robert Wagner born 27 July 1898.*

After finding this information, I went back to the letters written in German.  I was able to pick out the dates 18 February 1890 and 19 December 1891. I was also able to pick out the name Warner.   So I was sure that I had the right people.

I wondered why Rudolph would leave a wife and children in Germany, start another life here with a different wife and children.  It appears they were never married as she did not give the children his last name.  Then I thought maybe his intentions were to save some money and send for them.  But before he could save enough money, she moved on and got married.  She married two years before Rudolph got married here in the United States.  Maybe he wasn’t the scoundrel after all.  Then my curiosity got the best of me, and I had the first of the four letters transcribed.  As you will see as you read the letter, she is very upset with Rudolf Kaiser.  Here is the letter from 30 October 1910 transcribed

Berlin, dated 30.10.10

Dear Mr Kaiser!!!-?

Finally, after many, many years I have succeeded in finding out your address. You, dear Sir, will know that the result in 1890 of our relationship was a boy, and then, as a good-bye ! – a step which was so difficult – also a little girl. – And Anna Pielenz is deserted by the most beloved I once possessed, with two children, fatherless, alone. I have carved out an existence with my children in need of a father, and now that they are both grown, it is always the same lament: Where is our father…

My boy, as you know, has his father’s name, i.e. Rudolf Pielenz, born on 18 February 1890. My character and Your face, which was my consolation. Now he is big and a soldier. He is serving in Allenstein and has grown into a handsome young man. But now he is interested and searching for his father, who has treated him so ignominiously, so completely without interest. And the little girl has grown into a young lady. Born on 19 December 1891, her name is Ida and she also had no idea of her fatherless birth. But now

that they are both grown they will probably be in touch very soon and will greet their father by way of a letter, (because), when the boy was 5 years old and the girl 4, I was forced to get married because I could no longer afford the maintenance for the 2 children. It was just too hard for me, so I married without love and had to be content with my lot, because my love belonged only to one person ? , to whom, after all, I gave everything, and to my children. I have been on my own again for years now, and, as I say, I am content, because resentment and hatred grew more

noticeable all the time; because, you’ll know what I mean ?, a marriage without love is like a soup without salt and thus I am on my own with my children, living with my youngest sister. I hope you have not completely forgotten me and that [your] 14 years were happier than mine were. I really only moped around continuously. Maybe you think back occasionally to times past when happiness was still sweet.


Anna Vägner nee Pielenz

Berlin, S.O. 33

Skalitzerstr. 54a

Both children send their greetings

This opens up more questions than it answers.  How did she find him?  How does one find someone across an ocean in 1910?  I started to think how I would go about it.  Now we turn to the Internet or maybe private detectives.  I don’t think she had the means to hire a private detective.  But she probably knew what ship he traveled on, maybe he told her what city he planned to settle in.  She may have known his friends and family in Germany.  So maybe she found him through them.  It sounds like she never got over him.  I also notice that while she tells him of her unhappy marriage, she does not mention the children that were born of that marriage.  She says she hopes he has been happy the past 14 years.  It took me awhile to figure out where the 14 came from.  From 1890 or 1891 to 1910 is 19 or 20 years not 14.  In 1910 Rudolph was married 14 years.  She even knew how long he had been married.

I do not know who is right or wrong and there are always two sides to a story.  Her side is documented with letters, his side is silent.  There are no letters from him, no stories handed down, and so we do not have his side.  When I thought about her contacting his family in Germany, I wondered what happened to his mother and father.  I have their names and that is it.  When they were born or died remains a mystery.  I never heard my grandfather talk about his grandparents.  I don’t even think he knew their names.  When I started doing the family tree, he was still alive and never gave me that information.  I don’t know if he knew about his half-brother and half-sister.  If any of their descendants are around today, I would love to meet them.  I’m sorry that Anna Pielenz was so hurt.  I hope she forgave him and moved on for her sake.  As with all family secrets, they make for a good story, but I think about how sad it was for those children and their mother.  On the other hand if he stayed with them, I would not be here.  While I feel sad for them, I’m glad he had my grandfather.  Rudolph did something good; he raised a good and decent man in my grandfather.  My grandparents were married 58 years, my grandfather served in the United States Army during WWI, and worked at the same place for 45 years.  He owned a home and raised a son and daughter who were also good and decent people, and life goes on in me, my children, and grandchildren.  Maybe somewhere in the world there are sons, daughters, and  grandchildren of Anna Pielenz and Rudolf Kaiser’s relationship.

*Information from Berlin Germany Birth and Marriage Records at

Copyright ©2016 Gail Grunst

Letter’s from Germany to Rudolph Kaiser


Rudolph Kaiser was born to Franz Keiser and Emily Klatt in Lobsen, Posen, Prussia on 5 April 1865.[1] Emily had twin sons Theodor Julius and Albert Gustav Keiser born 29 June 1862.[2] [3] They only lived two months and few days.  Theodor died 7 September 1862[4] and Albert followed two days later on 9 September 1862.[5]  A year later, Emilie gave birth to a baby girl, Emma Auguste Keyser, born 6 September 1863.[6]  Unfortunately, Emma only lived to be little over 3 years old.  Emma died 10 October 1866[7] when Rudolph was 18 months old.  If there were other children it is not known at this time.

Rudolph came to the United States when he was 26 years old.[8]  He boarded the Ship Lahn in Bremen and landed at Castle Garden, New York on 30 April 1891.[9]  On the same boat is an Anton Springer.[10]  Could this be a brother of Wilhelmina Springer (Rudolph’s future wife)?  So far I haven’t been able to find proof.  In March of 1896 Rudolph married Wilhelmina Springer in Aurora Illinois.[11]  At the time of their marriage both Rudolph and Wilhelmina resided in Chicago, Illinois.[12]  Rudolph’s occupation is listed as brush maker.[13]  John Einsiedel and Babette Steinhauser are witnesses.[14]  I remembered my mother referring to an Aunt Barbara who lived in Aurora and that she was her grandmother’s sister.  I thought that Babette was probably Barbara (Wilhelmina’s sister). I checked it out, and found a marriage record of a Babette Springer to Joseph Steinhauser.[15]  I think John Einsiedel is a cousin to Great-Grandpa Kaiser, but not sure.  I searched and and could not find a family connection.  Of course this does not mean that there isn’t one.

Wilhelmina Springer was born on 17 December 1869 to Carl Springer and Margarete Burkhardt in Dinkelsburh.[16]  She arrived in New York aboard the Ship Lahn from Bremen on 3 August 1888.[17]   In September of 1896 a son Fredrick was born to Rudolph and Wilhelmina.[18]  In 1899 another son, Hugo, is born.[19]  Rudolph and Wilhelmina resided in Chicago, Illinois at 180 Mohawk,[20] and 2333 Winnemac,[21] and 4154 Irving Ave.[22] Hugo died during the Influenza epidemic in 1919.[23] [24] In January 1901 Rudolph declared his intention to become a citizen.[25]  On the 17th of September 1906 Rudolph became a citizen of the United States of America.[26]  Wilhelmina automatically became a citizen at the same time as Rudolph because she was his wife.[27]

I have some letters that were written in German address to my great-grandfather, Rudolph.[28]  They were found in my grandparent’s house when my mother and I were cleaning it out, after both my grandparents went to a nursing home.  My mother had a neighbor who was from Germany read them.  Apparently, they were written by children of Rudolph’s that he had in Germany.  They were not transcribed word for word, but the theme of the letters is that the daughter and son want to come to America and are wondering if their father would sponsor them.  They know he has wife and children here and do not want co cause him trouble.  The boy wrote letters from the service and wondered why he never answered them.  The neighbor that read them for my mother said, “It could be a scam, that when people wanted to come to America they would do this.”  But I tend to believe these are Rudolf’s children.  For one thing the letters are dated 1910, 1914, 1918, and 1920.  That is a long time to try to scam someone.  The time line works out too. They were born 1890 or earlier.  There is a letter from the Consulate of Switzerland in Chicago, Illinois dated August 25, 1920.  The Letter states, “We have been requested to get in touch with one Mr. Rudolf Kaiser, born April 5, 1865 at Lobson, province Posen, Germany.  Kindly acknowledge receipt of this letter at your earliest convenience, and should you be identical with this gentleman, we would ask you to call at this consulate or let us know your present address.  (our office hours are from 10 – 3, Saturdays 10 to 1 o’clock).” [29] The names of the children are Gertude Pielenz and Rudolph Pielenz.  The letter from the Switzerland consulate has the name Mrs. Ida Wiesen nee Pielinz written at the bottom. So apparently the children never took their father’s last name.  It doesn’t sound like Rudolph married their mother if they did not take his last name.   I also don’t think they would contact the Switzerland consulate if this was a scam.  There were never any family stories or rumors about this.  So I do not know if my grandfather knew about it or not.  My grandmother said that Rudolph Kaiser was a kind man; however his wife was mean and treated Rudolph badly.    I thought my grandmother just didn’t like her Mother-in-law.  Now I wonder if Wilhelmina found out that he had another family in Germany, and if that is why she wasn’t very nice to Rudolph.   If this is true, why would he leave his family in Germany and never send for them or write to them?  This is what bothers me.  I would love to know the story behind this but will probably never know.

Rudolph died on 6 January 1933 of Prostate Cancer.[30] Wilhelmina died on 6 July 1953 from Chronic Myocarditis and Arteriosclerosis.[31] Both are buried at Eden’s Cemetery in Schiller Park, Illinois.[32]

Note:  The name Rudolph is spelled Rudolf or Rudolph in places.  I tried to spell it like it was spelled in documents.  I have always spelled it Rudolph when referring to him.  Kaiser was spelled three ways Keiser, Keyser, and Kaiser.  Again I tried to spell it how it is spelled in documents.  Here in America he used Kaiser and his descendants used Kaiser

Copyright © 2016 Gail Grunst


[1] Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898, database,FamilySearch ( :, Rudolf Otto Keiser, 18 Apr 1865; citing ; FHL microfilm 245,514, 245,515, 245,517.

[2] Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898, database,FamilySearch ( : Emilie Ernstine Klatt in entry for Theodor Julius Keiser, 29 Jun 1862; citing ; FHL microfilm 245,514, 245,515, 245,517.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898, database,FamilySearch ( :, Theodor Julius Keiser, 29 Jun 1862; citing ; FHL microfilm 245,514, 245,515, 245,517.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898, database,FamilySearch ( : Emma Auguste Keyser, 06 Sep 1863; citing ; FHL microfilm 245,514, 245,515, 245,517.

[7] Ibid.

[8] United States Germans to America Index, 1850-1897, Database,FamilySearch ( : Rudolf Keiser, 30 Apr 1891; citing Germans to America Passenger Data file, 1850-1897, Ship Lahn, departed from Bremen & Southampton, arrived in New York, New York, New York, United States, NAID identifier 1746067, National Archives at College Park, Maryland.

[9] United States Germans to America Index, 1850-1897, database,FamilySearch ( : accessed 1 June 2016), Anton Springer, 30 Apr 1891; citing Germans to America Passenger Data file, 1850-1897, Ship Lahn, departed from Bremen & Southampton, arrived in New York, New York, New York, United States, NAID identifier 1746067, National Archives at College Park, Maryland.

[10] Illinois, Kane County, Marriage License and Return no 10271, Kaiser-Springer 1896, County Clerk’s Office, Geneva.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Illinois State Archives, “Illinois Statewide Marriage Index 1763 – 1900,” database, Illinois Statewide Marriage Index ( accessed 1 June 2016, entry for Babette Springer, 3 October 1895,  Kane County, License no. 00010043.

[15] Illinois, Kane County, Marriage License and Return no 10271, Kaiser-Springer 1896, County Clerk’s Office, Geneva.

[16] Ibid.

[17] “New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1891,” database with images,FamilySearch ( : accessed 1 June 2016), Minna Springer, 1888; citing NARA microfilm publication M237 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm .

[18] Illinois, Cook County, Return of a Birth No. 9055, Rudolph Frederick Kaiser, 12 September 1896, Vital Statistics Department, County Clerk’s Office, Chicago.

[19] United States, Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917 – 1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records AdministrationM1509, 4,582 rolls, Image from Family History Library microfilm.

[20] United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.

[21] Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920. (NARA microfilm publication T625, 2076 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C

[22] Illinois, Cook County, Standard Certificate of Death no. 605, Rudolph Kaiser, 6 January 1933, County Clerk’s Office, Chicago.

[23] Illinois, Cook County, Standard Certificate of Death no.11951, Hugo Kaiser, 11 April 1919., County Clerk’s Office, Chicago

[24] Influenza Encyclopedia ( Produced by the University of Michigan Center for the History of Medicine and Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, “The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918 -1919.”

[25] Illinois, Cook County Circuit Court, Chicago, Naturalization Record 1906, LDS 1024-633 Vols. 100-102, Rudolph Kaiser, Roll 102, Page37.

[26] Ibid.

[27] National Archives Website ( Prologue Magazine, Summer 1998, Vol. 30, No. 2, Smith, Marion L., Any woman who is now or may hereafter be married . . .” Women and Naturalization, ca. 1802-1940.

[28] Letters written in German to Rudolf Kaiser from Rudolf Pieling, Gertude Pieling, and Ida Wiesen  nee pieling, dated 1910, 1914, 1918, and 1920.  Letters are in the possession of Abigail Grunst, Rudolph Kaiser’s great-granddaughter.

[29] Illinois, Chicago; Consulate of Switzerland in charge of German Interests; dated 22 August 1920, Journal no. 5318/20.  Letter in possession of Abigail Grunst, Rudolph Kaiser’s great-granddaughter.

[30] Illinois, Cook County, Standard Certificate of Death no. 605, Rudolph Kaiser, 6 January 1933, County Clerk’s Office, Chicago.

[31] Illinois, Cook County, Medical Certificate of Death No. 49, Wilhelmina Kaiser, 6 July 1953, Forest Park, German Old Peoples Home.

[32] Eden’s Cemetery, 9851 Irving Park Road, Schiller Park, Illinois, Kaiser Lot 139, Section 7.  Personal knowledge by Author Abigail Grunst.  Visited the cemetery and graves many times.